Friday, December 26, 2014

USB Connectors

Found this wonderful reference chart of the various popular USB connectors.  The male "plug" adapter inserts into the female "jack/receptacle".

Saturday, November 29, 2014

Big Ben Clock - Raspberry Pi

We mounted a large clock on the wall of our vaulted ceiling and wanted to give it a little more pizzazz. I wanted to give it a Big Ben feel, so I added some speakers, a Raspberry Pi, a little code, and voilĂ ! We now have a mini Big Ben of our own.

With a Wifi connector I am also able to remotely push other audio sounds to the speakers. Think speaker front end for a makeshift security system, or other audio states of your home automation. The possibilities are endless.



The following is the code I wrote for the cronjob schedule and bash script to determine which audio file to play.

cronjob schedule:
# hourly from 7am to 10pm
0 7-22 * * *  /opt/big_ben/ > /dev/null

# Author: Kenneth Burgener  2014
# Purpose: Determine hour and play appropriate Big Ben MP3

# crontab: (from 7am and 10pm)
# 0 7-22 * * *  /opt/big_ben/ > /dev/null

# Get hour (1-12) for mp3 file
HOUR=`date +%l`
HOUR=$(( $HOUR ))

# Get military hour (1-24) for math below
MILHOUR=`date +%k`

# Set audio volume depending on time of day
if [ $MILHOUR -le 8 -o $MILHOUR -ge 20 ] ; then
    # 8am and earlier, 8pm and later
    #/usr/bin/amixer set PCM 80% > /dev/null
    /usr/bin/amixer set PCM 90% > /dev/null
    # 9am to 7pm
    #/usr/bin/amixer set PCM 95% > /dev/null
    /usr/bin/amixer set PCM 91% > /dev/null

/usr/bin/mpg123 /opt/big_ben/audio/big_ben_$HOUR.mp3 2> /dev/null

Big Ben Audio

I found a good quality mp3 file that had the full 12 chimes. I then used Audacity to chop the file into smaller versions for the appropriate hour chimes.
    • big_ben_1.mp3
    • big_ben_2.mp3
    • big_ben_3.mp3
    • big_ben_4.mp3
    • big_ben_5.mp3
    • big_ben_6.mp3
    • big_ben_7.mp3
    • big_ben_8.mp3
    • big_ben_9.mp3
    • big_ben_10.mp3
    • big_ben_11.mp3
    • big_ben_12.mp3
  • big_ben_12.mp3

Sunday, November 9, 2014

Twitter Logger with Python

Want a more modern method for simple logging and notifications? Twitter is very popular, but it normally too "noisy" for me to follow for social messages. Add a bit of tech and now I have a reason to check Twitter at least once a day, or follow the events on my phone.

I had read articles in both Linux Journal and The MagPi Magazine about engineering minds using Twitter to receive notifications when certain events occur. I decided to take this a step further and create a tiny Twitter logger script for all of my Raspberry Pis. I now receive notifications for all kinds of events, such as:

  • Daily "alive" notifications
  • Reboots, power cycles
  • Changes in dynamic IP address
  • GPIO event triggers (think security alarm, garage door, sprinkler system, etc)
  • And anything else that fancies me at the moment


How complicated is the Python? Easy. Only 3 lines (ignoring the line wrapping and commented debug code):
import twitter

api = twitter.Api(consumer_key='XXX',

status = api.PostUpdate('This is my status update')

# print status.text

To use this code you will need to first generate your Twitter App API Access Keys and also install the python-twitter Python package.

Twitter App API Access Keys

Step 1 - Twitter Account: So how does one get started?  Well first, you need a Twitter account.  I assume you already have one, or at least don't need help creating one.

Step 2 - Mobile Phone: Unfortunately, your code will only be able to read status updates, unless you tie a mobile phone number to your account. Once you have validated your mobile phone, you will then be able to write/post status updates as well. Go to your account Settings and select the Mobile section. Add your mobile phone number, and wait for the validation code to appear on your phone. (note: I did attempt to try a couple of free burner mobile phone numbers, none of which ever received the validation code)

"You must add your mobile phone to your Twitter profile before granting your application write capabilities. Please read for more information"
Step 3 - Twitter App: Next, we need to create a Twitter App. This is nothing more than a method to get access to your api keys. Browse to and click the "Create New App" button.

Fill in the Name, Description and Website fields, then accept the agreement and continue.

The important field is the Name field as it has to be unique among all Twitter Apps. I just used my twitter account name, as I assumed no one else would be using that for an app name.

The Website field has to be populated, but won't be used. Put some temporary website and continue.

The Callback URL can be ignored.

Step 4 - Access Level: After the Twitter App has been created, find the Application Settings section and modify the Access level option by clicking the Modify App Permission link.  Change the access level from Read Only to Read and Write.  If you receive a warning about your mobile phone number, go back to step 2.

Step 5 - Access Keys: Finally, find the Application Settings section again and click the Manage Keys and Access Tokens link. You will find the consumer keys at the top of the page. Under the Your Access Token section, click the Create My Access Token button to generate the access tokens. If it isn't obvious the keys match the code variables as such:
consumer_key = "Consumer Key (API Key)"
consumer_secret = "Consumer Secret (API Secret)"
access_token_key = "Access Token"
access_token_secret = "Access Token Secret"

Now with your access keys, you can begin using the code above to update your twitter status with various notifications.


The python-twitter package "provides a pure Python interface for the Twitter API." To install the python-twitter package, simply use pip.
$ sudo pip install python-twitter

That was easy.

Check Status Code

The previous code showed how we can post a new update, but what about getting our current status, or someone else's?
import twitter
api = twitter.Api(...)

# get my timeline
statuses = api.GetUserTimeline()

# get a specific user's timeline:
# statuses = api.GetUserTimeline(screen_name=SCREEN_NAME)

# show latest message only:
print statuses[0].text

# show all returned messages:
for s in statuses:
       print s.text

Catch Errors

There are a few important errors that you will probably run across, and should handle:

Authentication failure: (check your keys, especially for accientally copied space characters)
twitter.error.TwitterError: [{u'message': u'Could not authenticate you', u'code': 32}]

Too long of a message: (shorten your message)
twitter.error.TwitterError: [{u'message': u'Status is over 140 characters.', u'code': 186}]

Duplicate message: (don't repeat messages or add a unique id, like time)
twitter.error.TwitterError: [{u'message': u'Status is a duplicate.', u'code': 187}]

User does not exist: (check the user name you are trying to query)
twitter.error.TwitterError: [{u'message': u'Sorry, that page does not exist', u'code': 34}]


I updated the twitter script to accept a message from the command line, and then added it to my cronjob:
@daily      /usr/bin/python /usr/local/bin/twitter alive
@reboot     /usr/bin/python /usr/local/bin/twitter reboot


#1 To be able to group and sort messages, I would recommend using the power of the hashtag. Pick a unique identifier (maybe your username) and append a category like this:
system startup #oeey_garage_pi

#2 To avoid the "Status is a duplicate" you may also wish to append a unique ID to all messages. I like to use the current linux epoc time, like this:
system startup #oeey_garage_pi (1415571010)

The updated posting code would look like this:
import time
status = api.PostUpdate('{message} #{category} ({id})'.format(


/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/requests/packages/urllib3/util/ InsecurePlatformWarning: A true SSLContext object is not available. This prevents urllib3 from configuring SSL appropriately and may cause certain SSL connections to fail. For more information, see InsecurePlatformWarning
Solution: either ignore the warning or upgrade to at least Python 2.7.9 (or change code to use pyOpenSSL).

Other Libraries

If Python is not your thing, there a number of other Twitter libraries for various other programming platforms.

That's All Folks

Good luck, and have a good time playing with Python and Twitter.

Friday, October 3, 2014

Introduction to the Google Calendar API (HOWTO)

I have used Google Calendars to schedule and control a number of projects (eg. sprinkler system, alarm clock, etc) .  The following How To will get you started.  You will of course need a google account.

Create Project

1) Start by visiting the Google Developers Console

and create a new project.

2) Select the project and navigate on the left menu to APIs & auth then APIs and enable Calendar API for this project.  You can disabled all other APIs if you only need Calendar access.

3) Next, select the Consent screen menu option from the APIs & auth menu.  Enter a Product Name and select an Email Address.  If you do not do this step, you will get a Error: invalid_client error later on.

4) Next, select the Credentials menu option from the APIs & auth menu.  Under OAuth select Create new Client ID.

5) For the Create Client ID select Installed application for Application Type and select Other for Installed Application Type and finally click the Create Client ID button.

6) After the ID has finished being created, click the Download JSON button.  Save and rename the file as something simple like client_secret.json.

This json file contains your API credentials needed to access the Google Calendar APIs.

Install Google API Libraries

1) Install the Google API Libraries using Python's PIP installer:
$ sudo pip install --upgrade google-api-python-client

gflags may or may not be needed, depending on what code you use: (may be optional)
$ sudo pip install --upgrade python-gflags

If you would prefer alternatives, view the Google APIs Client Library for Python page.

Authorize Application

Next we will need to run our application and authorize it against the desired account.

1) Clone my sample code:
# git clone

The sample code is just a slight modification from the Getting Started Sample Code.  The Google sample code has some outdated code that will throw some obsoleted warnings.

2) The application has not been authorized to an account yet.  Run the application once and you will be asked to paste a validation URL into your browser.  Login to your desired target account (with the calendars you want to access) and then paste the validation URL into your browser.

For convenience I have a script that is the same script as the script, but terminates after authorization.  You can run any of the scripts to complete this authorization step.

The is pretty simple:
from apiclient.discovery import build
from oauth2client.file import Storage
from oauth2client.client import AccessTokenRefreshError
from oauth2client.client import OAuth2WebServerFlow
from import run_flow
from oauth2client.client import flow_from_clientsecrets

def main():
    scope = ''
    flow = flow_from_clientsecrets('client_secret.json', scope=scope)

    storage = Storage('credentials.dat')
    credentials = storage.get()

    class fakeargparse(object):  # fake argparse.Namespace
        noauth_local_webserver = True
        logging_level = "ERROR"
    flags = fakeargparse()

    if credentials is None or credentials.invalid:
        credentials = run_flow(flow, storage, flags)

if __name__ == '__main__':

You may notice the "fakeargparse" code. The run_flow() call wants the flags to be set from the parameters pulled from argparse. I think that is overkill for what I needed, so I just created a fake container so run_flow() wouldn't complain.

Run the script to collect the application authorization.
$ python
Go to the following link in your browser:

Enter verification code:

3) Copy the URL into the browser and accept the permissions.

4) You will be presented with a code, to which you will then enter back into the prompt of the application.  The authorization will be stored in the credentials.dat file for future requests.
$ python
Go to the following link in your browser:

Authentication successful.

Now that we have our API credentials and are authorized to access an account, we can begin to play with the Google Calendars.

View Upcoming Events

The script builds off of the script, cycles through the next few upcoming calendar events and displays the event titles.
    if credentials is None or credentials.invalid:
        credentials = run_flow(flow, storage, flags)

    http = httplib2.Http()
    http = credentials.authorize(http)
    service = build('calendar', 'v3', http=http)

    print "Upcoming Events:"
    request ='primary')
    while request != None:
        response = request.execute()
        for event in response.get('items', []):
            print event.get('summary', 'NO SUMMARY')
        request =, response)

This script defaults to the primary calendar associated with the account.

Calendar ID

The previous script defaults to the primary calendar associated with the account.  If you wish to specify an alternate calendar, you will need the Calendar ID.  A calendar's ID can be found on the Calendar Details setting page (same page you can change a calendar's name on).  Look for the Calendar Address line, and the Calendar ID will be in the parenthesis.  It will look something like "".

Next 12 Hours of Events

Finally, to specify a time range for events, I use the following code in my script.  This code will collect the next 12 hours worth of events.

    service = build('calendar', 'v3', http=http)

    # get the next 12 hours of events
    epoch_time = time.time()
    start_time = epoch_time - 3600  # 1 hour ago
    end_time = epoch_time + 12 * 3600  # 12 hours in the future
    tz_offset = - time.altzone / 3600
    if tz_offset < 0:
        tz_offset_str = "-%02d00" % abs(tz_offset)
        tz_offset_str = "+%02d00" % abs(tz_offset)
    start_time = datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(start_time).strftime("%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S") + tz_offset_str
    end_time = datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(end_time).strftime("%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S") + tz_offset_str

    print "Getting calendar events between: " + start_time + " and " + end_time

    events ='primary', timeMin=start_time, timeMax=end_time, singleEvents=True).execute()singleEvents=True).execute()
    for event in events['items']:
        print event["summary]

And this is the basis for the code I use to schedule my sprinkler system with.

Sunday, July 6, 2014


X10 - Lamp Module
I have been working on adding some home automation with X10 modules.

"X10 is a protocol for communication among electronic devices used for home automation (domotics). It primarily uses power line wiring for signaling and control, where the signals involve brief radio frequency bursts representing digital information." ref

I am using an X10 CM11A serial adapter module, connected to RaspberryPi, to control the X10 modules. I use the Linux Heyu software to communicate with the X10 modules through the CM11A serial adapter module. I have an X10 Lamp Module that automatically lights up when someone walks by the home security system's motion detector (also connected to the RaspberryPi), and I have an X10 Appliance Module that kills power to home entertainment system. Originally I wanted to control the power to some computer systems, but the power supplies in the computer systems then introduce too much noise to get a response from the X10 modules.

See also: label:x10Omnia:X10Omnia:heyu